The internet is absorbing increasing proportions of social, political, and economic activity. Yet, its sheer vastness and its unregulated nature have given rise to new challenges raising many questions. Is it dividing society rather than creating social cohesion? Does it help us better understand the real world, or do we just see a tailor-made cyber-reality reinforced by echo chambers? Is it equal in nature or are there online geographies giving rise to new types of inequality? Within this thematic pillar we explore issues affecting life online and how in turn they are shaping the offline world.